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2.07 FROST DAMAGE
Frost damage occurs when the sugar beet root freezes and then thaws again. Freezing causes cell wall damaged from both the expansion of water during solidification and from the formation of sharp crystals. Sugar beet roots freeze at approximately -3 °C (Huijbregts et al., 2013). Frost damage can very quickly lead to complete loss of processing quality owing to leakage or excessive accumulation of dextran in the damaged cells from bacterial activity. Frost damage can occur both while the crop sits in-situ pre-harvest, and post-harvest. The exact tolerance of the in-situ crop will depend on the depth of cold, the length of the cold, and the protection the root is given from the plant canopy (Milford et al., 2002). The average individual sugar beet root left in-situ is more susceptible to frost damage than the average harvested root stored in bulk (Milford et al., 2002; Olsson, 2009).